2/11/2013 0 Comments
Fundamental training principles
1. Training variables
- Volume, intensity, frequency
- Aerobic training volume = total distance or time of training. Resistance training volume = total number of repetitions or total weight lifted (number of repetitions x weight used)
- Aerobic training intensity = percentage of maximal heart rate (MHR). MHR per minute = 208 – 0.70(age in years). Resistance training intensity = percentage of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). 1 RM = maximum amount of weight used for one repetition.
- Total training volume normally refers to total number of training sessions per week.
- As participant adapts to the training, if further health and fitness gains are to be achieved, the training must be made more difficult.
- For aerobic training, it can be accomplished by training at a higher intensity or volume by increasing the duration or frequency. Likewise for resistance training.
- Note that increases in training intensity or volume should progress gradually and intensity and volume are indirectly co-related i.e. increasing intensity would lead to a decrease in volume and vice versa.
- Train the specific physiologic characteristics to achieve the desired gains or adaptations.
- Performing aerobic training primarily leads to adaptations related to cardiovascular health and endurance whereas strength training leads to muscular strength and power gains.
- Although overlap in adaptation exists between both types of training, it is crucial to include both types in a training programme.
- Individualized all training programmes according to individual responses and adaptation.
- Avoid certain lower body exercise such as leg extensions for individuals with a history of knee pain or adjusting MHR accordingly etc
- An adequate warm-up which includes a general warm-up, dynamic stretches and specific-sport/activity movements lead to optimum performance.
- Performing regular flexibility training to improve joint range of motion and mobility reduces risk of injury. This should be done separately from the warm-up, usually at end of workout or as a separate session.
These fundamental training principles can apply to both resistance and aerobic training. Following these principles would lead towards achieving the desired training goals and produce continued results in the longer term.
Antonio, J., Kalman, D., Stout, J. R., Greenwood, M., Willoughby, D. S., & Haff, G. G. (Eds.). (2008). Principles of Exercise Training. In A. Steven J. Fleck (Eds.), Essentials of sports nutrition and supplements (pp. 146-149). Chapter Humana Press.
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